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[经济学人] 经济学人双语精读 Junk hunting (1)

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    2018-8-11 09:24
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    [LV.6]翻译艺术II

    发表于 2018-8-9 16:02 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    经济学人双语精读三期招新|名额有限

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    阅读主题:环境类      
         经济学人精读 The Economist [53]
    选自 January 06 2018 Science and Technology 板块

    Space debris
    Junk hunting
    A new satellite will test ways to capture detritus circling Earth
    There is an awful lot of junk in space. The latest data from the European Space Agency suggest some 7,500 tonnes of it now orbits Earth. It ranges from defunct satellites and rocket parts to nuts, bolts, shards of metal and even flecks of paint. But something as small as a paint fleck can still do serious damage if it hits a working satellite at a speed of several thousand kilometres an hour. There have already been more than 290 collisions, break-ups and explosions in space. Given the likelihood that thousands of small satellites, some only a few centimetres across, will be launched over the next decade, many worry that large volumes of space nearEarth will soon be rendered risky places for satellites (especially big, expensive ones) to be.
    What is needed, then, is a clean-up. Various ideas about how to do this have been proposed, and some are about to be put to the test. In February a resupply mission to the International Space Station will also carry a satellite, about the size of a domestic washing machine, called RemoveDEBRIS. Once this has been unpacked and prepared by the station’screw, they will use a robotic manipulator to send it on its way into orbit around Earth. RemoveDEBRIS has been designed and built by Surrey Satellite Technology, a British manufacturer of small satellites spun out of theUniversity of Surrey in 1985, which is now majority-owned by Airbus. MissionControl for the RemoveDEBRIS project is the Surrey Space Centre at the university. The plan is for RemoveDEBRIS to carry out four experiments. The first two will involve launching from it a pair of CubeSats (mini-satellites10cm across). These will play the role of space junk.
    Once launched, the first CubeSat will inflate a balloon like structure a metre across, to which it will remain attached, in order to create a bigger target. The mother ship will then approach to a distance of seven metres and fire a net at the balloon. This net is designed to unfurl and warp itself around the target. Once the target is entangled, a cable connecting the net to the mother ship will be tightened, closing the neck of the net. It will then be hauled in, like catching fish.
    The second CubeSat will test the sensors ofRemoveDEBRIS. This trial will use cameras and a lidar (an optical version of radar) aboard the mother ship to build up a detailed three-dimensional image of the object. If that works it will permit future clean-up vehicles to recognise what they are dealing with, and react appropriately.
    In the third experiment, RemoveDEBRIS will extend a 1.5-metre-long arm that holds a 10cm-square target. It will then fire a harpoon at the target. The idea is that harpoons could be used to pierce some items of space debris and, like the net in the first experiment, then haul them in.
    The final experiment is intended to ensure that RemoveDEBRIS and its captured items do not themselves become space junk. The mother ship will deploy a ten squaremetre plastic membrane, supported by four carbon fibre booms, to act as a “dragsail” that will employ the limited atmosphere at this altitude to pull the craft downward to the fiery death of reentry.
    If space-debris capture systems like this succeed, then future missions could start to go after some of the most worrying bit of junk. Such ventures could be commercial, according to GuglielmoAglietti, director of the Surrey Space Centre, if governments (probably acting collectively) were willing to pay to keep space clean so as not to damage their own activities and those of their citizens. There are already guidelines to try to limit the accumulation of space junk. Defunct satellites should be disposed of within 25 years, either by being tipped into reentry or parked in an out-of-the way “graveyard” orbit. But the rules are not always followed and a lot of older debris remains in orbit. A bounty on removing the most threatening hulk might even see the launch of a new space business.
    文章单词数: 700 words
    [背景知识]


    Space debris太空垃圾
    Junk hunting  清理太空垃圾
    A new satellite will test ways to capture detritus circling Earth
    新卫星将试验捕获环绕地球碎片的方法
    There is an awful lot of junk in space. The latest data from the European Space Agency suggest some 7,500 tonnes of it now orbits Earth. It ranges from defunct satellites and rocket parts to nuts, bolts, shards of metal and even flecks of paint. But something as small as a paint fleck can still do serious damage if it hits a working satellite at a speed of several thousand kilometres an hour. There have already been more than 290 collisions, break-ups and explosions in space. Given the likelihood that thousands of small satellites, some only a few centimetres across, will be launched over the next decade, many worry that large volumes of space near Earth will soon be rendered risky places for satellites (especially big, expensive ones) to be.
    太空有大量的垃圾。欧洲太空总署的最新数据显示,目前绕地球卫星的垃圾总共约7500吨。这些垃圾包括废旧的卫星、火箭部件,也包括螺母、螺栓、金属碎片,甚至漆点般的微粒。但即使像漆点这样小的物质,如果撞上以每小时数千里速度飞行的运行的卫星,也会造成严重损害。太空中已经发生过290多起撞击、解体以及爆炸事件在未来十年,人类可能会发射数千颗卫星,其中有些只有几厘米的大小。因此,许多人担忧,地球周围的广袤空间很快就成为未来卫星(特别是巨型成本高的卫星)的危险之地。
    【短语搭配】
    an awful lot of : a very large amount许多,大量的
    European Space Agency(ESA),译为欧洲航天局/欧洲太空总署,是一个欧洲数国政府间的空间探测和开发组织,总部设在法国首都巴黎。欧洲航天局负责阿利亚娜4号和阿利亚娜5号运载火箭的研制与开发。
    range from A to B : to include a variety of different things in addition to those mentioned
       包括(从…到…)之间的各类事物:
       She has had a number of different jobs, ranging from chef to swimming instructor.
       她做过许多不同的工作,从厨师到游泳教练。
    IDIOMS
    in / within 'range (of sth)
       near enough to be reached, seen or heard
       在可及的范围内;在视觉(或听觉)范围内:
       He shouted angrily at anyone within range.
       他看见谁,就对谁吼叫。
    out of 'range (of sth)
       too far away to be reached, seen or heard
       超出…的范围;在视觉(或听觉)范围之外:
       The cat stayed well out of range of the children.
       这只猫离孩子们远远的。
    defunct :(formal)no longer existing, operating or being used
       已灭绝的;不再起作用的;不再使用的
    the now-defunct nuclear reactor 现已废弃的核反应堆
    shard: a sharp piece of broken glass, metal etc〔玻璃、金属等的〕锋利碎片:
    fleck:  a very small piece of sth微粒;小片: His hair was dark, with flecks of grey.
       他的黑发间有缕缕银丝。
    break-up :noun
    1. the ending of a relationship or an association
       (关系、联系、交往的)破裂,中断:
       the break-up of their marriage
       他们婚姻的破裂
       
    2. the division of a large organization or country into smaller parts
       (组织、国家的)拆分,分裂,分离
    the breakup of the Soviet Union苏联的解体
    likelihood: /noun sing., U
    1. the degree to which something can reasonably be expected to happen可能(性);SYNprobability
    [+ of ]
    Using a seatbelt will reduce the likelihood of serious injury in a car accident.系安全带可以降低在车祸中受重伤的可能性。
    little / lower / high / greater etc likelihood
    There was very little likelihood of her getting the job.她得到这份工作的可能性很小。
    likelihood (that)
    They must face the likelihood that the newspaper might go bankrupt.他们必须面对这个现实 — 报社可能要倒闭。
    2. in all likelihood almost certainly几乎肯定地,极可能地:
    If I refused, it would in all likelihood mean I'd lose my job.如果我拒绝,那我十有八九会丢掉工作。
    【长难句分析】
    Given the likelihood that thousands of small satellites, some only a few centimetres across, will be launched over the next decade, many worry that large volumes of space near Earth will soon be rendered risky places for satellites (especially big, expensive ones) to be.
    ① given  引导条件从句,some only a few centimetres across 独立主格结构做插入语,对sallites 的补充说明。
    ② thousands of small satellites, some only a few centimetres across 是同位语从句,修饰likelihood.
    这时有人问了, 为什么不是定语从句呢?
    同位语从句和定语从句在形式上基本相同,都是跟在名词或代词之后,且又常由that引导。但它们的句法功能却是不同的。区分方法有两种:1.同位语从句中从句是被修饰词的具体内容,是它的补充说明,定语从句中从句是起限定作用,不是被修饰词的具体内容。即连接词在同位语从句不做成分,因为同位语从句本身的作用是对前面的名词进行解释说明的补充作用;连接词在定语从句中做成分2.把被修饰的词和从句用be动词连成一句话,句子成立的就是同位语从句,不完整的是定语从句;。同位语从句的先行词是表示信息、观点、主张、事实等(如:idea, view, thought, order, suggestion, news, truth, hope, promise, answer, belief, condition, doubt, fear, problem, proof, question)等抽象的名词
    【语法解析】从三方面分析定语从句和同位语从句的区别 (新东方)
    that为例,连接定语从句的that一定会在从句中充当一定的成分;而连接同位语从句的that只起连接作用,不在从句中担任任何句子成分。whether 和 how 可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句。关系代词和关系副词除了连接从句的作用外,还在定语从句中充当一定的句子成分,如主语、宾语、定语、表语等。引导定语从句的连接词是关系词,常见的关系代词和关系副词有that , which , who , whose , whom , when , where , why , as,than, but等
      The fact that we talked about is very important.
      The fact that he succeeded in the experiment pleased everybody.
      (二)先行词不同。
      定语从句先行词既可以是人,也可以是物。相当于形容词。
      The moon is a satellite that goes round the earth.
      The few points that the president stressed in his report are very important.
      同位语从句进一步说明的是具有抽象概念的词,其作用相当于名词,对前面的名词进行补充说明。如fact, result, discovery,belief , doubt , fact , hope , idea , news , possibility , thought , order , suggestion , wish , answer , information , conclusion , decision , discovery , knowledge , law , opinion , problem , promise , proof , question , report , truth , risk等等。
      He has an idea that he can make the scientific instrument in a better way.
      He expressed the hope that he would come to China.
      (三)从引导词来看
      如果引导从句的词为when表示时间,where表示地点,why表示原因,how怎么样,表示方式,而它前面的词分别表示时间,地点,原因,方式等意义,那它们就是关系副词,引导的是定语从句。
      I’ll never forget the day when I saw the Great Wall.
    【翻译技巧】
    Given the likelihood that thousands of small satellites, some only a few centimetres across, will be launched over the next decade, many worry that large volumes of space near Earth will soon be rendered risky places for satellites (especially big, expensive ones) to be.
    被动语态的翻译方法 (张培基)
    ① 原文中的主语在译文中仍在主语
    ②译成带表语的主动句
    ③译成汉语被动句:给...; (遭)受......; ......所;
    ④ 译成“把”“使”“由”
    插入语的翻译方法(新东方)
    ①副词插入语
    英语中,副词用作插入语的位置通常可以在句首、句中或者句尾。翻译的时候,可以把这个插入结构放在其修饰的句子的前面翻译。
    apparently, it is going to rain.
    很明显,要下雨了。
    ②形容词短语作插入语
    形容词词组作插入结构,一般翻译为“…的是,…”这样的结构,放在其修饰的句子前面翻译。
    most important of all, computers create wide communication around the world.
    最重要的是,计算机在世界范围内建立了广泛的交流。
    ③介词短语作插入语
    英语中,介词词组作插入语的结构有:all in all(总而言之),as a matter of fact(事实上),as a result(结果),at worst(在最坏的情况下),by the way(顺便说一句),first of all(首先),for example(例如),in conclusion(总之,最后),in fact(事实上),in effect(实际上),in my opinion(依我我看来,我认为),in other words(换句话说,换言之),in short(简言之),to my delight(让我高兴的是),to ones amazement(使某人惊讶的是),to ones deep regret(使某人深感遗憾的是),to ones relief(使某人感到欣慰的是),to ones surprise(使某人感到吃惊的是)等。通常放到句子的最前面去翻译。
    lace w:st="on" chinalace , in fact, has caught up with and surpassed the world advanced levels in many respects.
    事实上,中国已经在许多方面赶上和超过了世界先进水平。
    不定式短语作插入结构
    常见的作插入结构的不定式短语有:so to speak(可以这样说),to tell you the truth(老实对你说),to be frank(说句实话),to begin with(首先),to start with(首先),to be more exact(更确切地说),to sum up(总之,概括地说),to put it briefly(简单说来),to put it in another way(换句话说),to make a long story short(长话短说),to say the least of it(至少可以这样说),needless to say(不用说),strange to say(说来奇怪),to conclude(总之,最后),to be sure(可以肯定的说),to be specific(具体说来),to be precise(准确地说),to speak frankly(坦白地说)等等。翻译的时候,无论其在英语原文中的顺序怎样,一般放到句子的最前面翻译。
    it wasnt a very good dinner, to say the least of it.
    至少可以这样说,这次宴会并不成功。
    所以这句话翻译为: 在未来十年,人类可能会发射数千颗卫星,其中有些只有几厘米的大小。因此,许多人担忧,地球周围的广袤空间很快就成为未来卫星(特别是巨型成本高的卫星)的危险之地。

    【翻译技巧】
    增词与减词(武峰)
    1. 增减评论下词(文学翻译常见)
    2. 增减范围词与对象词
    3. 增减范畴词
    如本段中 太空中已经发生过290多起撞击、解体以及爆炸事件。
             

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