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[茶馆闲话] 经济学人双语精读| 茶馆(选自20180915)

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  • TA的每日心情

    2018-11-20 17:15
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    [LV.6]翻译艺术II

    发表于 2018-9-15 10:39 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    本帖最后由 高级会员 于 2018-9-15 10:42 编辑

       


    20180915   经济学人China 版块

    The original tea party
    The Economists new China column: Chaguan
    It is named after traditional teahouses, where far more than hot drink once flowed


    GIVEN his love of Chinese teahouses, Mr Yang, a retired academic from Chengdu, was born in the right place at a terrible time. Within living memory his home town, the capital of Sichuan province, had boasted more than 600 teahouses, or chaguan. Some were famous for storytellers or opera. Others welcomed bird-lovers, who liked to suspend their pets in cages from teahouse eaves to show off their plumage and singing. Some served as rough-and-ready courtrooms for unlicensed lawyers (to take discussion teawas to seek mediation). One place might attract tattooed gangsters, another intellectuals. Wang Di of the University of Macau, a scholar of teahouses, cites an old editor who in the 1930s and 1940s ran his journal from a teashop table.

    Mr Yang, who declined to give his full name, favours Heming teahouse, a lakeside tea garden where patrons may spend hours in bamboo armchairs, reading newspapers, munching melon seeds or paying a professional ear-cleaner to rootle away with metal skewers. But he has known more dangerous times. Soon after first visiting the teahouse as a child in the 1960s, such businesses were targeted when young, fanatical Red Guards roamed his city during the Cultural Revolution. Back then everyone was busy chanting about revolution on the streetsthis type of culture was criticised,he recalls. Slow tea-sipping was called time-wasting, vain and bad. Maoist zealots closed teahouses.
    This was not their first taste of repression. Before Communism, Chengdu endured iron-fisted rule by the Nationalist regime of Chiang Kai-shek. Despots with a bossy, scoutmasterly streak, the Nationalists issued dozens of orders to stamp out bad teahouse habits. Managers were told to report clients spreading political rumours. Bawdy songs were banned. Teahouses were told to expel itinerant barbers (who did sometimes drop hair clippings in other patronsteacups, it is true). During the war with Japan, teahouses in Chengdu were ordered to display Nationalist flags, slogans and leadersportraits, and to inscribe approved news headlines on blackboards. In 1948 Sichuans governor demanded teahouse controls to regulate people who do not follow rulesand turn uselessness into usefulness.

    Teahouses had been little safer during the first decades of the 20th century, when warlords had brought terror to cities, or even earlier in the dying days of the final imperial dynasty, the Qing. The author Lao She, who in 1956 charted a Beijing teashops woes over a half-century in his play Teahouse, drew on life when he had the establishments manager pin up signs pleading No talk of state affairs, or when he showed grey-gowned secret police arresting customers for questioning the government.

    That teahouses managed equally to enrage Red Guards, Nationalist police chiefs and desiccated imperial mandarins might be reason enough to cherish them, and to name The Economists new China column Chaguanin their honour. But teahouses are more than fine places that attracted the right enemies. In their heyday, when some city streets might have boasted half a dozen, they were places to relax, do business, gossip and exchange ideas, both lowbrow and highfalutin. Some teahouse litigators were crooks, writes Qin Shao of the College of New Jersey, another teahouse historian. But at its best, teashop mediation with crowds hearing every word, could expose and shame local bullies, offering a rough sort of accountability.

    Like users of social media today, teahouse patrons loved tales of corruption, broken promises and immorality among the mighty. Some were false. Others contained enough truth to help explain why officials raged at them. A stubborn, indignant, often mocking resistance to finger-wagging propaganda is as much a Chinese tradition as deference to authority.

    Officials have spent more than a century vowing to modernise China, promoting reforms thatcertainly in the past 40 yearsoften demand the worlds admiration. Chinese leaders argue that their vast country cannot risk the morale-sapping confusion that might be sown by a free press, independent courts or even civic groups with the right to criticise official wrongs. Anyone calling for democratic freedoms is attempting to infect China with dangerously alien, indeed Western notions, officials assert.

    Yet such claims look questionable, not to mention self-serving, after reading historic accounts of teahouses and the unmistakably democratic impulses that sometimes moved customers. Even signs reading No talk of state affairscan be read as ironic symbols of protest against the suppression of free speech, as Wang Di has written. Similar democratic impulses can still be seen all over China, whenever citizens note that powers are being abused, mistakes covered up or that life seems unfair or absurd.

    Teahouses are unlikely to boom again in Chengdu. Youngsters at Heming spoke of making time to chill for the afternoon, as they are usually too busy. Tastes change. This writer was on a first China posting two decades ago when Starbucks opened its inaugural shop there, in Beijing. The chain plans to have 6,000 outlets in China by 2022, with one opening every 15 hours.

    Orders for the doctor
    But teahouses are more than places to buy a drink. They represent something precious: a space that is public yet not state-controlled, where citizens may speak, listen and be moved, find work, do deals or seek redress, or simply idle for a while. Today that spirit can be found online or in the gig economy, despite government controls. It is seen when citizensgroups report injustices, displaying a complex mix of distrust and trust in officials, whose help they seek while doubting what it can achieve.

    Chaguanaims to cover that China, writing about society, the economy and culture. Long ago, in a spirit of teasing respect, teahouse waiters were dubbed tea doctors. To be a tea doctor, patiently serving while patrons talk, seems a good ambition for a China columnist. Stoke the stove, then. To work.
    【背景了解】
    都说茶馆是社会的一个缩影或窗口,中国茶馆由来已久,早在唐玄宗时期就有了,只不过当时叫“茗铺”。茶馆是爱茶者的乐园,也是人们休息、消遣和交际的场所。茶馆这个称呼多见于长江流域,两广地区称茶馆为“茶楼”,而京津地区又称为“茶亭”。茶馆本身是一种生活方式,三教九流和吃瓜群众们在这里喝茶、吃食、看戏,高谈阔论或者八卦小道消息,包容了市井百态的生活,在专栏的第一篇文章中,David 解释了为什么取名为“茶馆”,从成都茶馆历史聊到老舍的《茶馆》,最后落脚在了国家控制和言论自由。
    茶馆是随着商业发展而逐渐形成和兴旺起来的。茶馆文化是茶文化的一个组成部分。茶馆的最早出现,可追溯到两晋南北朝,专供喝茶住宿的茶寮可说是古代最早的茶馆,至唐代时才正式形成茶馆,至今已有一千六、七百年历史。大体经历了这样几个发展阶段:一、两晋至唐代的茶馆形成期

    陆羽 《茶经》引用了南北朝时一部神话小说《陵耆老传》中一个故事,说晋元帝时“有老姥每旦独提一器茗往市弼之,市人竞买,自旦至夕,其器不减”,这可能是设茶摊、卖茶水的最早方式,也是茶馆的刍形。

    唐代是茶文化承前启后的重要时期。茶馆在这时期得到了确立。唐代封演的《村氏闻见记》曾记载:“开元中(公元713~741年)……自邹、齐、沧、棣,渐至京邑城市,多开店馆,煮茶卖之,不问道俗,投钱取饮。”可见卖茶、饮茶十分盛行。国家富强,政治安定,经济、文化昌盛,城市繁荣,为当时造就了一个群体——市民阶层。这一阶层主要由城镇商人、工匠、挑夫、贩夫等组成。他们流动范围较大,见识较广,重人间友情,生活在城市里彼此比邻而居,街市相见。茶馆为他们交流、沟通创造了一个良好环境。当时茶馆名称繁多,茶肆、茶坊、茶楼、茶园、茶室……等,而且都与旅舍、饭馆结合在一起,尚未完全形成独立经营。
    二、宋代至清代的发展时期

    宋以后城市集镇大兴,且一些大城市三鼓后仍夜市不禁,商贸地点不再受划定的市场局限。在热闹街市,交易通宵不断,这为茶馆发展提供了一个很好的契机,并且开始了独立经营。接洽、交易、清谈、弹唱都可在茶馆见到,以茶进行人际交往的作用集中凸现出来。那时开封潘搂之东有“从行角茶坊”,封丘门外马行街因商贩集中,有众多条访,曹门街有“北山子茶坊”,“内有仙洞仙桥,仕女往往夜游吃菜于彼”。这类茶坊,不仅饮茶,还营造了一个私人意境,今茶客陶醉。宋代不仅开封茶馆、茶坊兴旺,各地大小城镇几乎都有茶肆,《农讲传》、《清明上河图》都形象生动地再现了那时茶馆的真实情景,宋代的茶馆文化成为市民茶文化的一个突出标志。
    元、明时期的茶馆,与宋代的没有本质上的差别,但在茶馆经营买卖方面有较大发展。
    清代作为封建社会最后一个王朝,已走向衰败,最终沦为半封建半殖民地,茶馆这一社会窗口真实反映了这一历史变迁。这时期,各种大小茶馆遍布城市乡村的各个角落,成为上至王官贵族,八旗弟子,下到艺人、挑夫、小贩会集之地。不仅数量上有很大发展,文化色彩、审美情趣融入其间,社会性能上也有相应开拓,出现了为不同层次群众服务的特色茶馆,如专供商人洽谈生意的清茶馆,饮茶品食的“贰浑铺”,表演曲艺说唱的书茶馆,兼各种茶馆之长,可容三教九流的大茶馆,还有供文人笔会、游人赏景的野茶馆,供茶客下棋的棋茶馆……

    俗话说:四川“头上晴天少,眼前茶馆多”,四川茶馆是市民茶文化最典型的表现。茶馆在四川,可谓是遍布大小巷,尤其是在成都。成都人不能一日无茶,坐茶馆是他们生活的组成部分,茶馆的功能已远远超过了饮食本身的意义。因此,茶文化在四川已演变成独具巴蜀特色的“茶馆文化”。天下茶馆数中国,中国茶馆数四川,成都素有“茶馆冠天下”之说。
    一、茶馆的演变史可分为以下几个阶段:

    1.茶馆的萌芽:茶馆最早的雏形是茶摊,据《广陵这老传》中记载,中国最早的茶摊出现在晋代;

    2.茶馆的兴盛:茶馆的兴盛在宋代,那是中国茶馆的兴盛时期;

    3.茶馆普及:元代茶馆业是由宋至明的过渡时期,到明时,随着社会经济的发展,品茶之风更盛,清代茶馆业已经发展到一个鼎盛阶段;

    4.茶馆衰微:近代百年,中国经历了战争、贫困和一些非常特殊时期,茶馆也一度衰微。

    5.茶馆的复兴:新中国成立后,随着经济发展、人民生活水平逐渐提高,社会全面进步,文化及生活方式的多元化发展,出现了对茶馆需求的呼声。

    1988年北京老舍茶馆正式开业,这可以看做是中国现代茶馆开始全面复兴的一个标志。


    ( (成都最老的茶社:鹤鸣茶馆)



    (北京老舍茶馆)


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